Otkriven potencijalni lek za dijabetes tip 1

Priredila: Aleksandra Nikolić, Institut za Molekularnu Genetiku i Genetičko inženjerstvo


Insulinska terapija se primenjuje u lečenju dijabetesa tipa 1 još od 1922. godine, kada je bolest otkrivena. Usled nedostatka ćelija pankreasnih ostrvaca koje luče insulin, oboleli od dijabetesa tipa 1 moraju da unose insulin veštački više puta dnevno i da se pridržavaju strogo propisane ishrane da bi omogućili normalan metabolizam šećera u organizmu. Time se postiže kontrola bolesti, ali ne i normalna tolerancija na glukozu.

Najnoviji rezultati grupe istraživača iz Teksasa ukazuju da uspostavljanje normalne tolerancije na glukozu može da se postigne eliminacijom hormona glukagona. U eksperimentima na miševima, eliminisanjem glukagona, čije je dejstvo suprotno dejstvu insulina, postiže se normalna tolerancija na glukozu bez negativnih metaboličkih efekata. Istraživanje je bazirano na činjenici da je insulin neophodan za normalan rast i razvoj, ali da je u adultnom dobu njegova praktično jedina funkcija kontrola glukagona. Stoga, uklanjanjem glukagona iz metabolizma odrasle jedinke, insulin prestaje da bude bitan činilac u metabolizmu šećera.

Ako se lečenje dijabetesa tipa 1 definiše kao uspostavljanje normalne homeostaze glukoze, onda se tretman koji je pomenuta grupa autora uspešno primenila na miševima može smatrati potencijalno dragocenim lekom za ovu bolest, koji bi mogao da minimizira ili sasvim ukine potrebu za insulinskom terapijom. Sledeći korak u istraživanju je da se otkrije tačan molekularni mehanizam koji leži iza ovog otkrića i testiranje mogućnosti blokiranja dejstva glukagona kod ljudi, koje je već započeto.

 

Reference:

1. Lee Y, Wang MY, Du XQ, Charron MJ, Unger RH. Glucagon receptor knockout prevents insulin-deficient type 1 diabetes in mice. Diabetes. 2011;60(2):391-397.

2. Wang MY, Chen L, Clark GO, Lee Y, Stevens RD, Ilkayeva OR, Wenner BR, Bain JR, Charron MJ, Newgard CB, Unger RH. Leptin therapy in insulin-deficient type I diabetes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107(11):4813-4819.

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